Brossa Press

Global Trade and Local Distribution – Bristles and Brush Trade in India and Europe

By Dr Maren Bellwinkel-Schempp

Summary
Global concerns and local itineraries: bristles and brushes in trade relations in India and Europe: Brushes and bristles became a cherished commodity
in the 1870 in Europe, which was due to a variety of factors which were connected with the change of fashion and clothing as well as with major
political changes – notably the foundation of the Deutsches Reich and the Subsequent Emancipation of the German Jews. As a concomitant of the
fur trade, Leipzig became the European Centre of the bristle trade, after St.Petersburg lost its eminence after the Bolshevik Revolution. Bristle Trade
was predominantly in Jewish hands – although the cultural matrix of Judaism considered the pig to be an unclean animal. Commerce went on the
one hand against cultural notions of purity and pollution and on the other hand reinforced them. As a side line of colonial trade relations, the British
in India taught bristle dressing to untouchables, which made Kanpur in Uttar Pradesh become the all India centre of bristle manufacturing. Manufacturing and industrial production went side by side, both at the lowest scale of income and prestige. Trading and hawking was done through itinerant traders, who joined the large army of paupers, vagrants, beggars, bards and gypsies who travelled through Europe during the uprooting

The full article is available in German language:www.brossapress.de (Menue: “Aus der Historie“)

The article written by Dr. Maren Bellwinkel-Schempp was made with the assistance of Rainer Grueb – BROSSAPRESS in 1999 and published at the University of Leipzig (Germany)


years of the industrial revolution, subject to registration, police orders, and Christian work culture in poor houses. Present day marketing strategies
for brushes fall back upon the romanticism of ethnicity and manufacturing traditions. However, Kanpur’s former bristle manufacturer join global
economy as publisher as they have no more bristles to sell.

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MAREN BELLWINKEL-SCHEMPP
www.nomadsed.de/publications.html

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Abkürzungen:
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The full article is available in German language www.brossapress.de (menue:Aus der Historie) This article was made with the assistance of Rainer Grüb - BROSSAPRESS 1999 and pulished by the University of Leipzig (Germany)


A Holy Man with BroomMartin de Porres - A Holy Man with a Broom A Picture can be ordered at info(at)brossapress.de
-Martin de Porres from Lima-

Perhaps you have already seen him in a church at some time: he is especially highly honored in South America. At first sight he appears unimpressive, a dark young man in black and white dress holding in his right hand a broom, which brought him the name "Holy Man on the Broom". This broom ist probably also the reason, that he is not only the patron of preventers of rat and mouse plaques, but it is also the patron of cleaners.

We are speaking on Martin de Porres, a very unusual man, born in 1569 in Lima as the illegimate son of the Spanish nobleman Juan de Porres ant the mulatto Anna Velasquez. At the time, the city of Lima was an arena for battle of the Europeans for a foreign golden and heaten land. Love of gold and riches, of power and a lsust for conquest were wound together with a love of Christianity. At this time Martin de Porres showed himself to be a benefactor who  settled many peoples accounts in charity.

The parish register notes at the christening of this child: "Martin, son of Anna Velasquez, having been set free, the name of the Father is unknown." His Father, Juan de Porres dit not to be named. He felt that it would not suitable to have a colored woman


Martin de Porres - A Holy Man with a Broom
A Picture can be ordered at info(at)brossapress.de

as wife. When Martin lived with his father in order to receive an adequate education, he was constantly taunted by the cries of "mulatto dog".

When Martin returned to Lima, he learned the trade of barber-surgeons at the time E.Dussel explained this phase as such: "The injured and the ulcer-stricken liked to be treated by the genial young man. Within tree years, the poor, the needy and the ill poured into his practice. His loving care was untiring, many spoke of miraculous healings.

Every morning, Martin went to the first mass in his parish church of San Lorenzo, then he devoted himself to his patients until the close of the day. In no time his reputation and his esteem hat grown so much, that he decided to withdraw from his life and its constant admiration. And so, one day, with the approval of his mother, he joined in the life of the Dominican monastry there.

His social position in the monastry was the lowest because of his radical origin. He was treated very poorly in the monastry, he was considered as saint while still alive. His sister helped him substantially in one particular task: an orphanage was build with a soup kitchen for the needy in the convent. In addition, there were many more charity facilities in the whole city.

One of the people who sought  advice from him was the vice-king of Peru. Many miracles occured, and yet as E. Dussel correctly maintains, "the greatest miracle was surely his deep humility, his life  
was on constant prayer and limitless love".

When he died, news of Martin´s death spread quickly in Lima and in the whole Area. In 1837 he was beatied y Gregor XVI. On May 6th 1962, Pope John XXIII made him a saint. In the sermon during the canonization the Pope said: "he was a friend to the ill. He helped the poor with food, clothing and medicine. Peasant workers, people of dark skin and those of mixed race, those who work most for the least payment, these were the people he helped to his utmost; people can justly talk about "Martin of  love". His feast day is Novermber 3rd.


Hair brushes and hair care

nessler2   nessler1

Karl Ludwig Nessler 1872-1951

Karl Ludwig Nessler was born in Todtnau / Black Forest, which is well known as traditional place for brushmaking and brush machine manufacturing in May 1872. As a young man he learned the craft of hairdressing. Legend has it that, das a child, Nessler occcasionally worked as a shepard and that later as a hairdressing apprentice he frequently mulled over the question as to why the wool of the animals was permanently corly, while that was not generally the case for humans. He spent many years travelling through Switzerland, France and finally England where among his regular customers ware many Ladies of the highest social standing. He went on to invent a trailblazing new process: the world´s first perm!

1951 he died in Harrington Parc, New Yersey, USA.